Liberal Arts Blog — How Many Sections Does an Orange Have? A Grapefruit? A Lemon? Who Cares? Who Should?

Liberal Arts Blog — Wednesday is the Joy of Science, Engineering, and Technology Day

Today’s Topic — How Many Sections Does an Orange Have? A Grapefruit? A Lemon? Who Cares? Who Should?

It's the season of clementines, tangerines, tangelos. What better time to delve into the anatomy of the orange? We will start with the outer layer and move inward. But first the math of citrus sections. “Most lemons have 8 or 9 sections. Oranges and limes can have up to 12 and grapefruit can have 14 or even more.” Experts — please chime in. Correct, elaborate, elucidate.

THE EPICARP — aka “the rind” or the “flavedo” or the “exocarp” has three components

1. An epidermis — tough, outer layer

2. “Hypodermal parenchymatous cells,” (whatever those are)

3. Oil glands — “Raise your hand if you’ve ever squirted orange oil mist into your face while peeling an orange!”

THE WHITE CONNECTIVE TISSUE — THE PITH (aka the “albedo”)

1. “Connects the rind to the meat”

2. Also connects the orange segments to each other

3. The central column of pith or albedo is called, well, “the central column.”

THE “MEAT” (aka the “endocarp” — what we eat

1. Each segment is called a “carpel.”

2. Or sometimes a “lith.”

3. Each of these is made up of smaller juice filled sacs called “juice follicles.”

NB: Miracle of miracle! Each of these juice follicles is in fact a cell that you can see!

FOOTNOTES — more on oranges (see last link below)

1. They reproduce asexually.

2. Originate in southern China, northern India, and Myanmar.

3. First mention in Chinese literature in 314 BC.

NB: Now most cultivated fruit tree in the world (70% of citrus production). Biggest players: Brazil 22% market share, followed by China, India. Within the US: Florida twenty years ago produced five times as many oranges as California, but the two states are now neck and neck at about 50 million boxes per year.

Orange Autopsy — Nutritious Movement

A Secret about Citrus Circles

Fruit anatomy — Wikipedia

https://www.orlandosentinel.com/business/os-bz-citrus-production-florida-california-20210413-h3pxfsppnnegzesknm6i6ssoye-story.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orange_(fruit)

QUOTE OF THE MONTH:

“You’ve got to continue to grow, or you’re just like last night’s corn bread — stale and dry.” - Loretta Lynn

A LINK TO THE LAST FOUR YEARS OF POSTS ORGANIZED BY THEME:

PDF with headlines — Google Drive

ATTACHMENT BELOWS -

#1 A graphic guide to justice (9 metaphors on one page).

#2 “39 Songs, Prayers, and Poems: the Keys to the Hearts of Seven Billion People” — Adams House Senior Common Room Presentation, 11/17/20

PDF with headlines — Google Drive

YOUR TURN

Please share the coolest thing you learned this week related to science, engineering, or technology. Or, even better, the coolest or most important thing you learned in your life related to science and engineering. This is your chance to make someone else’s day. Or to cement in your mind something that you might otherwise forget. Or to think more deeply about something dear to your heart. Continuity is key to depth of thought.

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Passionate about education, thinking citizenship, art, and passing bits on of wisdom of a long lifetime.

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John Muresianu

Passionate about education, thinking citizenship, art, and passing bits on of wisdom of a long lifetime.